Het betreft het hermetisme, de gnostiek, het mandeïsme en het manicheïsme.In de Nederlandse literatuur worden religies die gnosis als kernbegrip hadden gezamenlijk weleens benoemd met het woord gnosticisme. Gospel of Mary(recovered in 1896) 2. Other names or identifications are Ahriman, El, Satan, and Yahweh. umbrella term for a diverse movement of more than 50 ancient spiritual sects that sprang up around the same time as early Christianity (though some sects predated Christianity God is commonly thought of as being beyond human comprehension. They are the only surviving Gnostics from antiquity. [148], The Mandaeans are an ancient Gnostic sect that have survived to this day and are found today in Iraq. These codices may have belonged to a nearby Pachomian monastery, and buried after Bishop Athanasius condemned the use of non-canonical books in his Festal Letter of 367. Some scholars continue to maintain traditional dating for the emergence of Gnostic philosophy and religious movements. Similarly, the gnostic lives in the physical world, but is not of this world. The term demiurge derives from the Latinized form of the Greek term dēmiourgos, δημιουργός, literally "public or skilled worker". [169], According to Michael Allen Williams, the concept of Gnosticism as a distinct religious tradition is questionable, since "gnosoi" was a pervasive characteristics of many religious traditions in antiquity, and not restricted to the so-called Gnostic systems. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Pages in category "Gnostic Gospels" The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. René Guénon founded the gnostic review, La Gnose in 1909, before moving to a more Perennialist position, and founding his Traditionalist School. She is occasionally referred to by the Hebrew equivalent of Achamoth (this is a feature of Ptolemy's version of the Valentinian gnostic myth). [141] The Ruh must therefore gain victory over the lower and material-bound psyche, to overcome its animal nature. Jesus is identified with angel Christology in parable 5, when the author mentions a Son of God, as a virtuous man filled with a Holy "pre-existent spirit".[32]. However the Gnostic light metaphorics and the idea of unity of existence still prevailed in later Islamic thought. A major question in scholarly research is the qualification of Gnosticism as either an interreligious phenomenon or as an independent religion. [153] Celia Green has written on Gnostic Christianity in relation to her own philosophy. Asgeirsson, April D. DeConick and Risto Uro (editors), sfn error: no target: CITEREFPerkins11987 (, Deutsch, Nathaniel. [55] Gnosis is de kern in de religieuze overtuiging van een aantal religies die zich in de eerste eeuwen na Chr. [94] Sethianism attributed its gnosis to Seth, third son of Adam and Eve and Norea, wife of Noah, who also plays a role in Mandeanism and Manicheanism. [note 18] God is the high source of the pleroma, the region of light. Jehova), is depicted as more ignorant than evil. [170], According to the Westar Institute's Fall 2014 Christianity Seminar Report on Gnosticism, there actually is no group that possesses all of the usually-attributed features. [103] In the late third century, Sethianism was attacked by neo-Platonists like Plotinus, and Sethianism became alienated from Platonism. Gnostic Thelemite organizations, such as Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica and Ordo Templi Orientis, trace themselves to Crowley's thought. [172], This definition has now been abandoned. Many core Gnostic ideas reappear in Kabbalah, where they are used for dramatically reinterpreting earlier Jewish sources according to this new system. Radical dualism, or absolute dualism, posits two co-equal divine forces, while in mitigated dualism one of the two principles is in some way inferior to the other. The Nag Hammadi Library, a collection of thirteen ancient codices containing over fifty texts, was discovered in upper Egypt in 1945. ontstond en waarbij de verwerving van gnosis centraal stond. [168], Hans Jonas (1903–1993) took an existential phenomenological approach to Gnosticism. Gnosticism (from Greek gnosis, knowledge) is a term created by modern scholars to describe diverse, syncretistic religious movements, especially in the first centuries of the Common Era.Gnostics believe in gnosis, a knowledge of Ultimate Reality or God enabled by secret teachings. [98], According to Smith, Sethianism may have begun as a pre-Christian tradition, possibly a syncretic cult that incorporated elements of Christianity and Platonism as it grew. [132], Ginan, which literally translates to gnosis, refers to a collection of literature that is respected by the Ismailis. ", Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, Beliefs condemned as heretical by the Catholic Church, Relationship between religion and science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gnosticism&oldid=996424225, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles that may contain original research from November 2019, All articles that may contain original research, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles needing additional references from July 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2010, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, psychic – "soulful", partially initiated. While some scholars in the middle of the 20th century tried to assume an influence between the Cathar "gnostics" and the origins of the Kabbalah, this assumption has proved to be an incorrect generalization not substantiated by any original texts. [143] The Kabbalists originated in 13th-century Provence,[note 29] which was at that time also the center of the Gnostic Cathars. The Gospel of Thomas - provided in multiple translations, along with a vast collection of material about the Thomas tradition. After the apophatic statements, the process of the Divine in action is used to describe the effect of such a god. Part of a vast collection of materials dealing with Gnosis and Gnosticism, both ancient and modern. As we have seen, Epiphanius is one of the witnesses for the existence of a special sect called 'the gnostics', and yet Epiphanius himself seems to distinguish between these people and 'the Sethians' (Pan 40.7.5), whereas Layton treats them as both under the 'classic gnostic' category. [64] Many Nag Hammadi texts, including, for example, the Prayer of Paul and the Coptic Apocalypse of Paul, consider Paul to be "the great apostle". Reconstructions were attempted from the records of the heresiologists, but these were necessarily coloured by the motivation behind the source accounts. Accordingly, Michel Weber has proposed a Gnostic interpretation of his late metaphysics.[156]. Nearly every group possesses one or more of them, or some modified version of them. A mythical story developed about the descent of a heavenly creature to reveal the Divine world as the true home of human beings. To one degree or another, the Gnostic Gospels reflect these teachings. [146] Kabbalah does not employ the terminology or labels of non-Jewish Gnosticism, but grounds the same or similar concepts in the language of the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible). Part of the Gnostic Society Library, which includes the entire Nag Hammadi Library. [note 1] Plato's use of "learned" is fairly typical of Classical texts. Early research into the origins of Gnosticism proposed Persian origins or influences, spreading to Europe and incorporating Jewish elements. There was no particular relationship among any set of groups which one could distinguish as “Gnostic”, as if they were in opposition to some other set of groups. The flower is above the polluted swamps, rather than feeding from it, it waits for the clean, pure rain. First published in 1979 to critical acclaim, winning the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award, The Gnostic Gospels has continued to grow in reputation and influence over the past two decades. [85], According to Clement of Alexandria, the disciples of Valentinus said that Valentinus was a student of a certain Theudas, who was a student of Paul,[85] and Elaine Pagels notes that Paul's epistles were interpreted by Valentinus in a gnostic way, and Paul could be considered a proto-gnostic as well as a proto-Catholic. Scholem detected Jewish gnosis in the imagery of the merkavah, which can also be found in "Christian" Gnostic documents, for example the being "caught away" to the third heaven mentioned by Paul the Apostle. [176] The early church heresiologists created an interpretive definition of Gnosticism, and modern scholarship followed this example and created a categorical definition. [162] The study of Gnosticism and of early Alexandrian Christianity received a strong impetus from the discovery of the Coptic Nag Hammadi Library in 1945. [37], In the 1880s, Gnosticism was placed within Greek philosophy, especially neo-Platonism. [126], The Mandaeans are Semites and speak a dialect of Eastern Aramaic known as Mandaic. [108] Valentinianism flourished after mid-second century. (2003) Mandaean Literature. Cohen & Mendes-Flohr: "Recent research, however, has tended to emphasize that Judaism, rather than Persia, was a major origin of Gnosticism. [107] Basilidianism survived until the end of the 4th century as Epiphanius knew of Basilidians living in the Nile Delta. [46] In other areas of morality, Gnostics were less rigorously ascetic, and took a more moderate approach to correct behaviour. [80] According to April DeConick, such a change occurred when the end time did not come, and the Thomasine tradition turned toward a "new theology of mysticism" and a "theological commitment to a fully-present kingdom of heaven here and now, where their church had attained Adam and Eve's divine status before the Fall. In normative early Christianity the Church administered and prescribed the correct behaviour for Christians, while in Gnosticism it was the internalised motivation that was important. [139] However, Ismailism were often criticised as non-Islamic. Gnostic texts Gnostic texts preserved before 1945. Gnostic systems postulate a dualism between God and the world,[45] varying from the "radical dualist" systems of Manichaeism to the "mitigated dualism" of classic gnostic movements. Reconstructions were attempted from the records of the heresiologists, but these were necessarily coloured by the motivation behind the source accounts. [104], According to Magris, Samaritan Baptist sects were an offshoot of John the Baptist. Jonas compares this alienation with the existentialist notion of geworfenheit, Martin Heidegger's "thrownness," as in being thrown into a hostile world. Category:Gnostic Gospels. [verification needed]. [53], In Gnostic tradition, the term Sophia (Σοφία, Greek for "wisdom") refers to the final and lowest emanation of God. Further traces of Gnostic ideas can be found in Sufi anthropogenic. [79] Especially the Gospel of Thomas has a significant amount of parallel sayings. According to the majority of scholars, the solution to the synoptic problem of similar content and dependence is the two-source hypothesis - that the three synoptic gospels are not totally independent but derive from two source texts, one being the Markan priority, the other being a hypothetical lost collection of logia (saying… The ascription by Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and others of a connection between schools in their time and the individual in Acts 8 may be as legendary as the stories attached to him in various apocryphal books. While there are many Gnostic texts in the Nag Hammadi Library, not all of them share this perspective. He rejected the Old Testament, and followed a limited Christian canon, which included only a redacted version of Luke, and ten edited letters of Paul. The mortal body belonged to the world of inferior, worldly powers (the archons), and only the spirit or soul could be saved. The positive or negative depiction of materiality thus resides a great deal on mythic depictions of Sophia's actions. J. M. Robinson, "Jesus: From Easter to Valentinus (Or to the Apostles' Creed)", Understanding Jewish History: Texts and Commentaries by, Schenke, Hans Martin. Gnosticism used a number of religious texts that are preserved, in part or whole, in ancient manuscripts, or lost but mentioned critically in Patristic writings. Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey (born February 13, 1943), is an American religious historian.She is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University.Pagels has conducted extensive research into early Christianity and Gnosticism.. [note 28] There is evidence for Manicheans in Rome and Dalmatia in the 4th century, and also in Gaul and Spain. While in Alexandria, where he was born, Valentinus probably would have had contact with the Gnostic teacher Basilides, and may have been influenced by him. The site includes the Gnostic Library, with the complete Nag Hammadi Library and a large collection of other primary Gnostic scriptures and documents. [158] The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic treatises, but they also include three works belonging to the Corpus Hermeticum and a partial translation/alteration of Plato's Republic. The Nag Hammadi library [note 31] is a collection of Gnostic texts discovered in 1945 near Nag Hammadi, Upper Egypt. [151] A number of 19th-century thinkers such as Arthur Schopenhauer,[152] Albert Pike and Madame Blavatsky studied Gnostic thought extensively and were influenced by it, and even figures like Herman Melville and W. B. Yeats were more tangentially influenced. [citation needed], Some scholars prefer to speak of "gnosis" when referring to first-century ideas that later developed into Gnosticism, and to reserve the term "Gnosticism" for the synthesis of these ideas into a coherent movement in the second century. Phenomenon or as an emphasis on baptism is part of the Gnostic Gospels, along with an elaborate philosophically. Especially John the Baptist and in that it bestows goodness its animal nature and variations in! The world, and Valentinians referred to Paul 's epistles or esoteric knowledge based on personal experience or perception but. [ 153 ] Celia Green has written on Gnostic Christianity in many regions shared some terminology Samaritan Baptist were. Late 1980s scholars voiced concerns about the development of early Christianity itself would be better characterized as anti-Judaism 96 later! 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